Popular Economics Weekly
It doesn’t look good for two Trump and Republican campaign promises currently working their way through Congress: i.e., to repeal and replace Obamacare, and reform the tax code. They should really be working on what is possible; a $1 Trillion infrastructure spending bill. So the euphoria and expectations generated by the Trump victory might dissipate, and that is what’s needed to generate future growth at the end of an already long business cycle.
Why? There is massive opposition from both Republicans and Democrats to both an Obamacare replacement vehicle and tax reform proposals to date. Whereas the one campaign promise that could succeed is the upgrade and replacement of our aging public infrastructure. Both Republicans and Democrats want it for their home states and districts.
For instance, out of the 614,387 bridges in the US, more than 200,000 are more than 50 years old. The Associated Society of Civil Engineers 2016 report estimates it would cost some $123 billion just to fix the bridges in the US, and many of the one million drinking water pipes have been in use for almost 100 years. The aging system makes water breaks more prevalent, which means there are about two trillion gallons of treated water lost each year.
In fact, most of our highways and bridges were built more than 70 years ago, which is why the ASCE says public infrastructure is now behind more the $4.5 trillion in maintenance alone, such as highways, harbors, wastewater facilities and bridges.
Even more important to our security and economic well-being, is the majority of the transmission and distribution lines were built in the mid-20th century and have a life expectancy of about 50 years, meaning that they are already outdated. So between 2016 to 2025, there's an investment gap of about $177 billion for infrastructure that supports electricity, like power plants and power lines, reports the ASCE.
There is another Republican obsession, however that may block even that possibility. It’s Trump’s preoccupation with the Wall, or pseudo Wall, and deportation of millions of undocumented workers—the majority of which have lived in the U.S. for more than 10 years. They have raised families, paid taxes, and held jobs that white and other ethnic groups are either incapable of doing (such as farm work), or refuse the low wages and benefits on this bottom rung of the labor ladder.
Any increase in their deportation could cause severe damage to growth, and maybe even end the 8 years of this growth cycle. The Center for American Progress, a liberal policy institute in Washington, is even more blunt. It estimates that a policy of mass deportation would "immediately reduce the nation's GDP by 1.4% and ultimately by 2.6%." This is when current GDP growth is just 2 percent.
None other than Fed Chairman Janet Yellen also voiced her concern in a recent speech. "Labor-force growth has been slowing in the United States," Yellen said. "It's one of several reasons, along with slow productivity growth, for the fact that our economy has been growing at a slow pace. Immigration has been an important source of labor-force growth. So slowing the pace of immigration probably would slow the growth rate of the economy."
Her comments are striking because Yellen is usually careful not to discuss topics outside her monetary policy and regulation mandate, lest her remarks be construed as political.
And, "Because capital will adjust downward to a reduction in labor — for example, farmers will scrap or sell excess equipment per remaining worker — the long-run effects are larger and amount to two-thirds of the decline experienced during the Great Recession," the CAP report says. "Removing 7 million unauthorized workers would reduce national employment by an amount like that experienced during the Great Recession."
Over 10 years, US output will have fallen $4.7 trillion short of what it might otherwise have been, CAP says. For comparison, US gross domestic product, the nation's total spending on goods and services, stood at $18.6 trillion at the end of 2016.
Those are very large numbers, which means Republicans and Democrats will have to learn to work together on what is practical and attainable to avoid the next recession.
Harlan Green © 2017
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